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Образец оформления реферата по английскому языку

Also language is the main communication element. Without words it is impossible to present any high-grade human dialogue. Communication between people are difficult, multilateral process. But even today, most people are still ignorant of the existence of body language, образец оформления реферата по английскому языку alone its importance in their lives.

The purpose of this work is to study the results of many analyses of nonverbal communications and what it is used for in the dialogue and in fiction.

In this work we demonstrate the definitions of communication as well as the types of communication. And also we will see what role is played by nonverbal communication in fiction. The study of the body language is conducted at present mainly by anthropologists, linguists, and social psychologists, who refer to this science by the name of kinesics — the study of nonverbal communication or communicative body movements.

These include the study of the образец оформления реферата по английскому языку and frequency with which people touch each образец оформления реферата по английскому языку during a conversation, and the distance which they keep from each other during interactions. Linguists have regarded gestures as a form of language, perhaps even the predecessor of all human languages, and have studied the various kinds of kinesic communication used by different cultural and social groups, such as stockbrokers, beggars, and the clergy.

The body language forms an indispensable element in social interaction. Facial expression and bodily movements can amplify, modify, confirm, or subvert verbal utterance, expressing meanings which elude or surpass verbal language.

  • Deceit or the act of withholding information can sometimes be indicated by touching the face during conversation etc;
  • Linguists have regarded gestures as a form of language, perhaps even the predecessor of all human languages, and have studied the various kinds of kinesic communication used by different cultural and social groups, such as stockbrokers, beggars, and the clergy;
  • Paralanguage refers to the nonverbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion;
  • Текст реферата за исключением титульного листа набирается 14 кеглем с выравниванием по ширине;
  • Communication between people are difficult, multilateral process;
  • The scientific study of language in any of its senses is called linguistics.

Thus it is a key to the inner psychological and emotional state of the performer. The scientific study of language in any of its senses образец оформления реферата по английскому языку called linguistics. The approximately 3000 - 6000 languages that are spoken by humans today are the most salient examples, but natural languages can also be based on visual rather than auditory stimulus, for example in sign languages and written language. Codes and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as those used for computer programming can also be called languages.

A language in this sense is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information. Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood. The use of language has become deeply entrenched in human culture and, apart from being used to communicate and share information, it also has social and cultural uses. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate a sign with a particular meaning.

When described as a system of symbolic communication, language is traditionally seen образец оформления реферата по английскому языку consisting of three parts: The study of how signs and meanings are образец оформления реферата по английскому языку, used and interpreted is called semiotics. Signs can be composed of sounds, gestures, letters or symbols, depending on whether the language is spoken, signed or written, and they can be combined into complex signs such as words and phrases.

When used in communication a sign is encoded and transmitted by a sender through a channel to a receiver who decodes a signal. Spoken and образец оформления реферата по английскому языку languages contain a phonological system that governs how sounds or visual symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are used to form phrases and utterances.

Written languages use visual symbols to represent the sounds of the spoken languages, but they still require syntactic rules that govern the production of meaning from sequences of words. One definition sees language primarily as the mental faculty that allows humans to undertake linguistic behaviour: This definition stresses the universality образец оформления реферата по английскому языку language to all humans and the biological basis of the human capacity for language as a unique development of the human brain.

Another definition sees language as a formal system of signs governed by grammatical rules of combination to communicate meaning. This definition stresses the fact that human languages can be described as closed structural systems consisting of rules that relate particular signs to particular meanings.

Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment. Communications can be verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communications are possible only at language use. But people can communicate also without words.

Paralanguage refers to the nonverbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously, and it includes the pitch, volume, and, in some cases, intonation of speech. Sometimes the definition is restricted to vocally-produced sounds. The study is known as paralinguistics. The latter are phenomena that can be observed in speech but that do not belong to the arbitrary conventional code of language. The paralinguistic properties of speech play an important role in human speech communication.

There are no utterances or speech signals that lack paralinguistic properties, since speech requires the presence of a voice that can be modulated.

Правила оформления титульного листа реферата на примере

This voice must have some properties, and all the properties of a voice as such are paralinguistic. However, the distinction linguistic vs.

  • Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously, and it includes the pitch, volume, and, in some cases, intonation of speech;
  • Paralinguistic phenomena occur alongside spoken language, interact with it, and produce together with it a total system of communication;
  • Общие положения и требования Реферат представляет собой первый, предэкзаменационный этап сдачи экзамена кандидатского минимума по иностранному английскому языку.

Even vocal language has some paralinguistic as well as linguistic properties that can be seen, and even felt. Paralinguistic phenomena occur alongside spoken language, interact with it, and produce together with it a total system of communication.

  • Also language is the main communication element;
  • Образец оформления списка источников см;
  • Boredom is indicated by the head tilting to one side, or by the eyes looking straight at the speaker but becoming slightly unfocused;
  • The study is known as paralinguistics;
  • Содержание реферата с постраничным указанием каждого раздела.

The study of paralinguistic behavior is part of the study of conversation: In intercultural communication paralinguistic differences can be responsible for, mostly subconscious or stereotyped, confusion. All these characteristics differ in various cultures. For example the notion that Americans are talking "too loud" is often interpreted in Europe as aggressive behaviour or Finnish is spoken relatively slowly in comparison to other European languages.

Paralanguage often still name body language. Body language is a form of mental and physical ability of human nonverbal communication, which consists of body posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye movements. Humans send and interpret such signals almost entirely subconsciously. Образец оформления реферата по английскому языку, the scientific study of body language, was pioneered by the anthropologist Ray L.

Body language may provide clues as to the attitude or state of mind of a person. For example, it may indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, pleasure, amusement, and intoxication, among many other cues. For example, the idea of mirroring body language to put people at ease is commonly used in interviews, personal contact.

Body language can show feelings to other people, which works in return for other people. People who show their body language to you can reveal their feelings and meanings.

Mirroring the body language of someone else indicates that they are understood. It is important to note that some indicators of emotion e. Physical expressions like waving, pointing, touching and slouching are all forms of nonverbal communication. The study of body movement and expression is known as kinesics. Physical expressions reveal many things about the person using them.

More often body language signals about the relation to the interlocutor. One of the most basic and powerful body-language signals is when образец оформления реферата по английскому языку person crosses his or her arms across the chest. This can indicate that a person is putting up an unconscious barrier between themselves and others.

When the overall situation is amicable, it can mean that a person is thinking deeply about what is being discussed. But in a serious or confrontational situation, it can mean that a person is expressing opposition.

This is especially so if the person is leaning away from the speaker. Disbelief is often indicated by averted gaze, or by touching the ear or scratching образец оформления реферата по английскому языку chin.

When a person is not being convinced by what someone is saying, the attention invariably wanders, and the eyes will stare away for an extended period. Boredom is indicated by the head tilting to one side, or by the eyes looking straight at the speaker but becoming slightly unfocused. Deceit or the act of withholding information can sometimes be indicated by touching the face during conversation etc.

Some people use and understand body language differently, or not at all.

Образец оформления реферата по английскому языку their gestures and facial expressions or lack thereof in the образец оформления реферата по английскому языку of normal body language usually leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations especially if body language is given priority over spoken language.

It should also be stated that people from different cultures can interpret body language in different ways. Additionally, body language is an important ingredient in social differentiation; differences in physical comportment play a significant part in separating social groups from each other, and in fostering feelings of mutual hostility or alienation. This also figures in the creation of cultural differentials between nations. Different languages involve different facial and bodily movements, and there are other, more qualitative judgements and distinctions.

Body language reflects differences of gender as well as of class and nationality. Prescriptions for the physical behaviour of women are often different from those of men. Therefore concepts language, paralanguage, body language need to be considered in interrelation as expanding and supplementing each other 1.

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